Refereed Journal Articles
 Shiliang Liu, X. Sharon Hu, Michael T. Niemier, Joseph J. Nahas, Gary H. Bernstein, and Wolfgang Porod, “A Design Space Exploration of the MagneticElectrical Interfaces for Nanomagnet Logic,” under review in IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology.
 Xueming Ju, Michael Niemier, Markus Becherer, Wolfgang Porod, Paolo Lugli, and György Csaba, “Applicationlevel Architectures for Nanomagnet Logic – Co/Ptbased Systolic Circuits,” under review in IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology.
 Mohammad Abu Jafar Siddiq, M.T. Niemier, G.H. Bernstein, W. Porod, X.S. Hu, “A Field Coupled Electrical Input for Nanomagnet Logic,” under review in IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology.
 Peng Li, Vijay K. Sankar, Gyorgy Csaba, X. Sharon Hu, Michael Niemier, Wolfgang Porod, Gary H. Bernstein, “Magnetic Properties of Enhanced Permeability Dielectrics for NML Circuits,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, in press.
 Peng Li, Gyorgy Csaba, Vijay K. Sankar, Xueming Ju, Edit Varga, Paolo Lugli, X. Sharon Hu, Michael Niemier, Wolfgang Porod, and Gary Bernstein, “Direct Measurement of Magnetic Coupling between Nanomagnets for NML Applications,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, in press.
 M. Tanvir Alam, Steven Kurtz, M. Jafar Siddiq, Michael T. Niemier, Gary H. Bernstein, Xiaobo Sharon Hu, and Wolfgang Porod, “Onchip Clocking for Nanomagnet Logic Lines and Gates,” in IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, , 11(2), p. 273286, 2012.
 M. Niemier, E. Varga, G. H. Bernstein, W. Porod, M. T. Alam, A. Dingler, A. Orlov, and X. Sharon Hu, “Shape Engineering for nonmajority Boolean gate designs with nanomagnet logic,” in IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, 11(2), p. 220230, 2012. (#3 most downloaded paper in March, 2012).
 Peng Li, Gyorgy Csaba, Vijay K. Sankar, Xueming Ju, Paolo Lugli, X. Sharon Hu, Michael Niemier, Wolfgang Porod, Gary H. Bernstein, “Switching Behavior of Lithographically Fabricated Nanomagnets for Logic Applications,” Journal of Applied Physics, 111, 07B911, April 2012.
 M. Crocker, M.T. Niemier, and X.S. Hu “A Reconfigurable PLA Architecture for Nanomagnet Logic,” ACM Journal of Emerging Technology and Computing Systems, ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies in Computing, Vol. 8, No. 1, p. 125, February, 2012.
 M.T. Niemier, G.H. Bernstein, A. Dingler, X.S. Hu, S. Kurtz, S. Liu, J. Nahas, W. Porod, M. Siddiq, and E. Varga, “Nanomagnet Logic: Progress Toward SystemLevel Integration,” in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 23, 493202, 2011.
 Shiliang Liu, X. Sharon Hu, Joseph J. Nahas, Michael Niemier, Wolfgang Porod, and Gary H. Bernstein, “MagneticElectrical Interface for Nanomagnet Logic,” in IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, 10(4), p. 757763, 2011 (Featured on cover.)
 Aaron Dingler, Michael T. Niemier, Xiaobo Sharon Hu, and Evan Lent, “Performance and Energy Impact on Locally Controlled NML Circuits,” in ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies in Computing, 7(1), p. 124, 2011.
 Steven Kurtz, Edit Varga, Michael Niemier, Wolfgang Porod, Gary H. Bernstein, and X. Sharon Hu, “Two Input, NonMajority Magnetic Logic Gates: Experimental Demonstration and Future Prospects,” in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 23(5), p. 053202, 2011.
 Mohmmad Tanvir Alam, Mohammad Jafar Siddiq, Gary H. Bernstein, Michael Niemier, Wolfgang Porod, and X. Sharon Hu, “Onchip Clocking for Nanomagnet Logic Devices,” IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, p. 348351, Volume 9(3), 2010.
 Edit Varga, Alexei Orlov, Michael T. Niemier, X. Sharon Hu, Gary H. Bernstein, Wolfgang Porod, “Experimental Demonstration of Fanout for Nanomagnet Logic,” in IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, 9(6), p. 668670, 2010.
 M. Crocker, X.S. Hu, and M.T. Niemier, “Defects and Faults in QCABased PLAs,” ACM Journal of Emerging Technology and Computing Systems, Vol. 5, No. 2, p. 127, 2009.
 M. Crocker, X. Sharon Hu, M. Niemier, M. Yan, and G. Bernstein, “PLAs in QuantumDot Cellular Automata,” IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, Vol.7, no.3, pp.376386, May 2008.
 M. Crocker, M. Niemier, X. Sharon Hu, and M. Lieberman, “Molecular QCA design with chemically reasonable constraints,” ACM Journal of Emerging Technology and Computing Systems, Vol. 4, No. 2, p. 121, 2008.
 A. Chaudhary, D. Z. Chen, X.S. Hu, M. T. Niemier, R. Ravichandran, and K. Whitton, “Easing Fabricatable Interconnect in Molecular QCA Circuits,” in IEEE Transactions on CAD (TCAD), p. 19781991, Vol. 26(11), November 2007.
 S.K. Lim, R. Ravichandran, and M.T. Niemier, “Partitioning and Placement for Buildable QCA Circuits,” in ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems (JETC), Vol. 1, No. 1, p.5072, 2005.
 R. Ravichandran, S.K. Lim, and M.T. Niemier, “Automatic Cell Placement for Quantumdot Cellular Automata,” in Integration: The VLSI Journal, Vol. 38, No. 3, p.541548, 2005.
 M.T. Niemier and P.M. Kogge, “Problems in Designing with QCAs: Layout = Timing,” in International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications, 29: 4962, 2001.
Refereed Conference and Workshop Paper
 A. Papp, M. Niemier, A. Csurgay, M. Becherer, S. Brietkreutz, J. Kiermaier, I. Eichwald, X. Ju, W. Porod, and G. Csaba, “Design of a ThresholdGate Based Full Adder from OutofPlane Nanomagnet Logic,” under review at Joint MMM/Intermag Conference, Chicago, IL, 2013.
 Peng Li, György Csaba, Vijay K. Sankar, X. Sharon Hu, Michael Niemier, Wolfgang Porod, Gary H. Bernstein, “Paths to Clock Power Reduction via High Permeability Dielectrics for Nanomagnet Logic Circuits,” under review at Joint MMM/Intermag Conference, Chicago, IL, 2013.
 Mohammad A Siddiq, Gary H. Bernstein, Michael T. Niemier, Xiaobo S. Hu, Gyorgy Csaba, Wolfgang Porod, “Demonstration of FieldCoupled Input Scheme on Line of Nanomagnets,” under review at Joint MMM/Intermag Conference, Chicago, IL, 2013.
 E. Varga, M.T. Niemier, G. Csaba, G.H. Bernstein, and W. Porod, “Experimental Realization of a Nanomagnet Full Adder Using SlantedEdge Input Magnets,” under review at Joint MMM/Intermag Conference, Chicago, IL, 2013.
 S. C. Karthik, P. Li, S. Liu, F. Shah, D. Himadri, G. Csaba, M. Niemier, S. Hu, W. Porod, and G.H. Bernstein, “PsuedoSpinValve Giant Magnetoresistance Strutures for Electronic Readout in Nanomagnet Logic,” under review at Joint MMM/Intermag Conference, Chicago, IL, 2013.
 Steve Kurtz, Aaron Dingler, Michael Niemier, Xiaobo Sharon Hu, György Csaba, Joseph Nahas, Wolfgang Porod, and Gary Bernstein, “Preserving Steady State NonVolatility in Nanomagnet Logic Circuits,” in the SRC’s TECHCON: Technology and Talent for the 21st Century, September 1011, 2012.
 Peng Li, Gyorgy Csaba, Vijay Karthik Sankar, Xueming Ju, Edit Varga, Paolo Lugli, Xiaobo Sharon Hu, Michael T. Niemier, Wolfgang Porod, Gary H. Bernstein, “Direct Measurement of Magnetic Coupling Between Nanomagnets for Nanomagnet Logic Applications,” in the SRC’s TECHCON: Technology and Talent for the 21st Century, September 1011, 2012.
 Mohammad Siddiq, Gary H. Bernstein, Michael T. Niemier, Wolfgang Porod, Xiaobo Sharon Hu, “Experimental Demonstration of FieldCoupled Input Scheme for Nanomagnet Logic (NML),” in the SRC’s TECHCON: Technology and Talent for the 21st Century, September 1011, 2012.
 M. Niemier, X. Ju, M. Becherer, G. Csaba, A Dingler, X.S. Hu, D. SchmittLandsiedel, P. Lugli, and W. Porod, “Boolean and NonBoolean Architectures for OutofPlane Nanomagnet Logic,” to appear in the Proceedings of the International Workshop on Cellular Nanoscale Networks and their Applications, August 2931, 2012.
 Wolfgang Porod, Peng Li, Faisal Shah, Mohammad Siddiq, Edit Varga, Gyorgy Csaba, Vijay Sankar, Gary H. Bernstein, X. Sharon Hu, Michael Niemier, Joseph Nahas, and Alexei Orlov, “NanoMagnet Logic,” Proceedings of the Device Research Conference, p. 21314, June 1820, 2012.
 Peng Li, Gyorgy Csaba, Vijay K. Sankar, X. Sharon Hu, Michael Niemier, Wolfgang Porod, and Gary H. Bernstein, “Power Reduction in Nanomagnet Logic Clocking through High Permeability Dielectrics,” Proceedings of the Device Research Conference, p. 129130, June 1820, 2012.
 M. Niemier, X. Ju, M. Becherer, G. Csaba, X.S. Hu, D. SchmittLandsiedel, P. Lugli, and W. Porod, “Systolic Architectures and Applications for Nanomagnet Logic,” Proceedings of the Silicon Nanoelectronics Workshop, June 1011, 2012.
 Xueming Ju, Markus Becherer, Paolo Lugli, Michael T. Niemier, Wolfgang Porod, and György Csaba, “Design of a Systolic Pattern Matcher for Nanomagnet Logic,” at the International Workshop on Computational Electronics, p. 13, May 2225, 2012.
 Aaron Dingler, Steve Kurtz, Michael Niemier, X Sharon Hu, Gyorgy Csaba, Joesph Nahas, Wolfgang Porod, Gary Bernstein, Peng Li, Vijay Karthik Sankar, “Making NonVolatile Nanomagnet Logic NonVolatile,” Proceedings of the Design Automation Conference (DAC), p. 476485, 2012.
 Peng Li, Gyorgy Csaba, Vijay K. Sankar, Xueming Ju, X. Sharon Hu, Michael Niemier, Wolfgang Porod, Gary H. Bernstein, “Direct Measurement of Magnetic Coupling between Nanomagnets for NML Applications,” accepted for oral presentation at Intermag, 2012. (Best student paper nominee)
 Peng Li, Vijay K. Sankar, Gyorgy Csaba, Faisal Shah, X. Sharon Hu, Michael Niemier, Wolfgang Porod, Gary H. Bernstein, “Enhanced Permeability Dielectrics for Power Reduction in NML Circuits,” accepted for oral presentation at Intermag, 2012.
 Peng Li, Gyorgy Csaba, Vijay K. Sankar, X. Sharon Hu, Michael Niemier, Wolfang Porod, Gary H. Bernstein, “Switching Behavior of Lithographically Fabricated Nanomagnets for Logic Applications,” in MMM 2011.
 Shiliang Liu, X. Sharon Hu, Joseph J. Nahas, Michael Niemier, Gary H. Bernstein, and Wolfgang Porod, “MagneticElectrical Interface for Nanomagnet Logic” in the SRC’s TECHCON 2011: Technology and Talent for the 21st Century''.
 Shiliang (Shawn) Liu, Xiaobo S. Hu, Joseph J. Nahas, Michael T. Niemier, “Design and Optimization of MagneticElectrical Interfaces for NML Circuit Output,” Work in Progress session at the 2011 Design Automation Conference (DAC).
 György Csaba, Paolo Lugli, Michael Niemier and Wolfgang Porod, “Magnetic excitations for information processing,” in 12th IEEE CNNA  International Workshop on Cellular Nanoscale Networks and Applications, p. 15, February 35, 2010.
 Steve Kurtz, Michael Niemier, X. Sharon Hu, Wolfgang Porod, and Gary H. Bernstein, “Design Space Exploration for Nanomagnet Logic Systems”, in Proceedings of Foundations of Nanoscience (FNANO 10) (Snowbird, UT), p. 6263, April 2730, 2010 (invited).
 M. Alam, G.H. Bernstein, J. Bokor, D. Carlton, X.S. Hu, S. Kurtz, B. Lambson, M.T. Niemier, W. Porod, M. Siddiq, and E. Varga, “Experimental Progress of and Prospects for Nanomagnet Logic (NML),” in Proceedings of the Silicon Nanoelectronics Workshop (Hawaii), p. 12, June 1517, 2010.
 Michael Crocker, X. Sharon Hu, and Michael Niemier, “Design and Comparison of NML Systolic Architectures”, in Proceedings of IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Nanoscale Architectures (Anaheim, CA), p. 2934, June 1718, 2010.
 E. Varga, S. Liu, M.T. Niemier, W. Porod, X.S. Hu, G.H. Bernstein, and A. Orlov, “Experimental Demonstration of Fanout for Nanomagnet Logic,” in Proceedings of the Device Research Conference, p. 9596, 2010.
 Edit Varga, Michael T. Niemier, Gary H. Bernstein, Wolfgang Porod, and X. Sharon Hu, “Programmable NanomagnetLogic Majority Gate,” in Proceedings of the Device Research Conference, p. 8586, 2010.
 E. Varga, M. Siddiq, M.T. Niemier, M.T. Alam, G.H. Bernstein, W. Porod, X.S. Hu, and A. Orlov, “Experimental Demonstration of NonMajority, Nanomagnet Logic Gates,” in Proceedings of the Device Research Conference, p. 8788, 2010.
 E. Varga, M. Siddiq, M. Niemier, G.H. Bernstein, and W. Porod, “Experimental Investigation of Slanted Supermalloy Nanomagnets and Their Application in Nanomagnet Logic”, in the SRC’s TECHCON 2010: Technology and Talent for the 21st Century''
 G. H. Bernstein, J. Kulick, D. Kopp, J. Bonath, J. Brockman, W. Buckhanan, S. Dai, P. Fay, M. Khan, A. Kriman, Y. Lee, C. Liang, M. Niemier, M. Padberg, D. Rinzler, R. Savino, and G. Snider, “Quilt Packaging – a QuasiMonolithic Way to Merge Heterogeneous Technologies and Scales,” in Proceedings of Foundations of Nanoscience (FNANO09) (invited, keynote).
 M. T. Alam, S. Kurtz, M.T. Niemier, S. X. Hu, G. H. Bernstein, and W. Porod, “Magnetic Logic Based on FieldCoupled Nanomagnets: Clocking Structures and Power Analysis,” in Proceedings of Foundations of Nanoscience (FNANO09) (invited).
 E. Varga, M. T. Niemier, G.H. Bernstein, W. Porod, and X. Sharon Hu, “Nonvolatile and Reprogrammable MQCAbased Majority Gates,” in Proceedings of the Device Research Conference, June 22, 2009.
 A. Dingler, M.T. Niemier, X.S. Hu, M.T. Alam, and M. Garrison, “SystemLevel Energy and Performance Projections for Nanomagnetbased Logic,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Nanoscale Architectures, p.2126, July 3031, 2009 (best paper award).
 M.T. Alam, M.A. Siddiq, M.T. Niemier, X.S. Hu, W. Porod, and G. H. Bernstein, “Fabrication of OnChip Clock Structure for Nanomagnet QCA (MQCA),” in TECHCON 2009: Technology and Talent for the 21st Century'' (best student presentation award).
 A. Dingler, M.J. Siddiq, M.T. Niemier, X.S. Hu, M.T. Alam, G.H. Bernstein, and W. Porod, “Controlling Magnetic Circuits: How Clock Structure Implementation will Impact Logical Correctness and Power,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Defect and Fault Tolerance in VLSI Systems, p.94102, October 79, 2009.
 M. Crocker, X. Sharon Hu, and M. Niemier, “Defect Tolerance in QCABased PLAs,” in Proceedings of IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Nanoscale Architectures, p.4653, Anaheim, CA, June 1213, 2008.
 M. T. Alam, S. Kurtz, M.T. Niemier, S. X. Hu, G. H. Bernstein, and W. Porod, “Magnetic Logic Based on FieldCoupled Nanomagnets: Clocking Structures and Power Analysis,” in Proceedings of the 8th IEEE International Conference on Nanotechnology, Arlington, TX, August 1821, 2008 (invited paper).
 M. Niemier, A. Dingler, and X. Sharon Hu, “Design Tradeoffs for Improved Performance in MQCAbased Systems,” in the Proceedings of the 1st IEEE International Workshop on Design and Test of Nano Devices, Circuits and Systems (NDCS), Cambridge, MA, Sept. 2930, 2008, p. 3538.
 M. Niemier, M. Crocker, and X. Sharon Hu, “Fabrication Variations and Defect Tolerance for Nanomagnetbased QCA,” in Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE International Symposium on Defect and Fault Tolerance in VLSI Systems, Cambridge, MA, Oct. 13, 2008, p. 534542.
 M. Niemier, A. Dingler, X. Sharon Hu, M. Tanvir Alam, G. Bernstein, and W. Porod, “Bridging the Gap between Nanomagnetic Devices and Circuits,” in Proceedings of the 26th IEEE International Conference on Computer Design, Lake Tahoe, CA, Oct. 1215, 2008, p. 506513.
 X.S. Hu and M.T. Niemier, “Computing with nearest neighbor interactions: a nanomagnetic implementation,” in the Proceedings of the 6th IEEE/ACM/IFIP International Conference on Hardware/Software Codesign and System Synthesis, Atlanta, GA, Oct. 1924, 2008, p. 223330 (invited paper).
 M. T. Alam, G. H. Bernstein, W. Porod, S. Hu, M. Niemier, M. Putney, and J. DeAngelis, “Power Dissipation for Clocked Magnetic QCA,” in the Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Computational Electronics, October 810, 2007, Amherst, MA.
 M. Niemier, M.T. Alam, X.S. Hu, G. Bernstein, W. Porod, M. Putney, and J. DeAngelis, “Clocking Structures and Power Analysis for Nanomagnetbased Logic Devices,” in the Proceedings of International Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design (ISLPED), p. 2631, 2007.
 M. Crocker, X.S. Hu, and M.T. Niemier, “Fault Models and Yield Analysis for QCAbased PLAs,” in the Proceedings of 17th International Conference on Field Programmable Logic and Applications (FPL), p. 435440, Amsterdam, Netherlands, August 2729, 2007.
 A. Chaudhary, D.Z. Chen, R. Fleischer, X.S. Hu, J. Li, M.T. Niemier, Z. Xie, and H. Zhu, “Approximating the Maximum Sharing Problem,” in the Proceedings of Workshop on Algorithms and Data Structures, Halifax, Canada, p. 5263, August 1517, 2007.
 G. Bernstein, M. Alam, W. Porod, S. Hu, M. Niemier, M. Putney, and J. DeAngelis, “Clocking Scheme for Nanomagnet QCA (NMQCA),” in the Proceedings of the 7th IEEE International Conference on Nanotechnology, Hong Kong, August 25, 2007.
 M.T. Alam, M. Niemier, W. Porod, S. Hu, M. Putney, J. DeAngelis, and G. Bernstein, “OnChip Clocking Scheme for Nanomagnet QCA,” in the Proceedings of the Device Research Conference, p.133134, Notre Dame, IN, June 1820, 2007.
 M.T. Niemier, X.S. Hu, M. Lieberman, and M. Crocker, “Using CAD to Shape Experiments in QCA,” in the Proceedings of International Conference on Computer Aided Design (ICCAD), p. 907914, November 8, 2006.
 M.T. Niemier, X.S. Hu, M. Lieberman, M. Crocker, Pavan Sadarangani, Zack Capozzi, and Tim Dysart, “Using DNA as a Circuitboard for a Molecular QCA PLA,” in the Proceedings of Foundations of Nanoscience (FNANO06), p. 96107, April 23  April 27th, 2006 (invited paper).
 X.S. Hu, M. Crocker, M.T. Niemier, M.Yan, and G. Bernstein, “PLAs in Quantumdot Cellular Automata,” in the Proceedings of International Symposium on VLSI, p. 242247, March 23, 2006.
 A. Chaudhary, D.Z. Chen, X.S. Hu, M.T. Niemier, R. Ravichandran, K. Whitton, “Eliminating Wire Crossings for Molecular Quantumdot Cellular Automata Implementation,” in the Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Aided Design (ICCAD), Nov. 610, p. 565571, 2005.
 R. Ravichandran, M.T. Niemier, and S.K. Lim, “Partitioning and Placement for Buildable QCA Circuits,” in the Proceedings of IEEE/ACM Asia South Pacific Design Automation Conference, p. 424427, 2005.
 M.T. Niemier, R. Ravichandran, and P.M. Kogge, “Using Circuits and Systems Research to Drive Nanotechnology,” in the Proceedings of the International Conference on Circuit Design, p. 302309, October 1113, 2004 (invited paper).
 D.A. Antonelli, T.J. Dysart, D.Z. Chen, A.B. Kahng, P.M. Kogge, R.C. Murphy, and M.T. Niemier, “QuantumDot Cellular Automata (QCA) Circuit Partitioning: Problem Modeling and Solutions,” in the Proceedings of the 41st Design Automation Conference, p. 363368, June 711, 2004, San Diego, CA.
 R. Ravichandran, N. Ladiwala, J. Nguyen, M.T. Niemier, S.K. Lim, “Automatic Cell Placement for Quantumdot Cellular Automa,” in the Proceedings of the 14th Great Lakes Symposium on VLSI, Boston, MA, April 2004, p. 332337.
 M.T. Niemier and P.M. Kogge, “The 4Diamond Circuit  A Minimally Complex Nanoscale Computational Building Block in QCA,” in the Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Symposium on VLSI, p. 310, IEEE Computer Society Press, Lafayette, LA, February 2004.
 M.T. Niemier and P.M. Kogge, “Teaching Students Computer Architecture for New Nanotechnologies,'' in the Proceedings of the Workshop on Computer Architecture Education (WCAE), held in conjunction with the 29th International Symposium of Computer Architecture (ISCA), Anchorage, AK, May 2002.
 M.T. Niemier, A.F. Rodrigues, and P.M. Kogge, “A Potentially Implementable FPGA for Quantum Dot Cellular Automata,” in the Proceedings of the 1st Workshop on NonSilicon Computation (NSC1), held in conjunction with the 8th International Symposium on High Performance Computer Architecture (HPCA8), Boston, MA, February 2002.
 M.T. Niemier and P.M. Kogge, “Exploring and Exploiting WireLevel Pipelining in Emerging Technologies,” in the Proceedings of the 28th International Symposium of Computer Architecture, p. 166177, IEEE Computer Society Press, Goteburg, Sweden, July 2001.
 M.T. Niemier, M.J. Kontz, and P.M. Kogge, “A Design of and Design Tools for a Novel Quantum Dot Based Microprocessor,” in the Proceedings of the 37th Design Automation Conference, p. 227232, Association for Computer Machinery (ACM) Press, Los Angeles, CA, June 2000.
 M.T. Niemier and P.M. Kogge, “Logic in Wire: Using Quantum Dots to Implement a Microprocessor,” in the Proceedings of the International Conference of Electronics, Circuits, and Systems, p.12111215, Vol. 3 IEEE Computer Society Press, Larnaca, Cyprus, September 1999.
 M.T. Niemier and P.M. Kogge, “Designing Complex Logic Systems with QCA Devices,” in the Proceedings of the 9th Great Lakes Symposium on VLSI, p. 122125, IEEE Computer Society Press, Ann Arbor, MI, March 24, 1999.
 M.T. Niemier and P.M. Kogge, “LogicinWire: Using Quantum Dots to Implement Really Dense Processing Logic,” in the Proceedings of the Third Petaflops Workshop held in conjunction with Frontiers of Massively Parallel Processing, Annapolis, MD, February 1999.

